What Is A Printed Circuit Board?

Electronics | Posted by Alfred Goodwin
Apr 08 2015

The printed circuit board, or PCB, is considered a key concept and component in electronics design. Ever since they were first made available, printed circuit boards have been indispensible in the manufacture of electronic devices.

PCBs are also referred to as printed wiring boards or printed wiring cards. Before the birth of the PCB, electronic and electrical circuits were composed wires laboriously connected point-to-point with other components. They were messy and confusing, making troubleshooting very difficult. They were also more prone to malfunction and short circuit, since the wires are exposed to the elements subjecting them to wear and tear.

The first printed circuit board came out in 1936 and was invented and patented by Austrian engineer Paul Eisler. His method involved the etching of copper foil onto a non-conductive material surface, which during those times, is reinforced glass. It was only after the war in 1948 that the invention was released for use commercially, but printed circuit boards only picked up in popularity and use during the mid 1950s. The dawn of solid state electronics further established the PCB’s position in the electronics industry.

printed circuit boardsBasically, a PCB is a board made of non-conductive material etched with pads and lines made of copper foil. These pads and lines connect together various points wherein the electronic components are soldered or stamped. The copper foil allows the power and signals to be directed to the components. When components are soldered, lead is melted using a soldering device to make the electrical connection between the board and the component. The cooled solder also acts as adhesive.

Three types of printed circuit boards exist – single-sided, double-sided and multi-layered. In single-sided boards, the components are located on one side of the board. This type is often used in non-complex circuits. In case of more complex electronic design where more components are needed, double-sided boards can be used. Components can now be placed on both sides of the board and they are connected by drilling holes at certain points on the board. Although much more difficult to design, multi-layered boards simplify the circuit pattern since all the layers have circuit patterns; in other words, these boards reduce the surface area needed for the connection of components.

Think of the PCB as something like lasagna or a layer cake. Different materials are layered one over the other and then joined using heat and adhesive, resulting in a single component.

The material most commonly used as the substrate or base is fiberglass. The base is responsible for the board’s thickness and rigidity. Thickness differs according to usage of the circuit. There are flexible printed circuit boards built using Kapton – a high temperature plastic. Cheaper materials like phenolics and epoxies are also used for manufacturing cheap electronic devices. These substrates are characterized by a bad smell during soldering.

The thin copper foil is the next layer. It is attached to the base using adhesive and heat. On double sided boards, both sides will have thin copper foil etched on them. Copper thickness also varies depending on the purpose.

The soldermask layer protects the copper areas from unnecessary contact with solder, metals, or conductive bits. It also prevents solder jumps by only exposing the soldering rings and coating the rest of the areas. The soldermask layer is what gives printed circuit boards the green or red color.

The silkscreen adds the numbers, letters, symbols to the printed circuit board. This allows for easier component assembly. Some silkscreen labels also indicate the function of each LED or pin of the component. Silkscreen is usually white in color.

All in all, PCBs are far from simple, but they have truly simplified the process of manufacturing electronics.

Choosing Your Long Island Foreclosure Attorney

Legal | Posted by Flip Jupiter
Apr 07 2015

Lenders enjoy an advantage when filing for a foreclosure complaint. This is part of their regular business and hence, they are more knowledgeable in the processes involved. More often than not, they have existing relationships with attorneys to aid them into achieving a favorable result. On the other hand, borrowers are often disadvantaged, not just due to their lack of financial capacity but also of proper knowledge of the process.

To top it all off, the emotional burden can overwhelm the defaulting borrower into paralysis. In Long Island, a foreclosure attorney helps such clients even out the playing field and stand a real chance to defend their rights and protect their homes.

Long Island foreclosure attorneyWhen dealing with foreclosures, know that there is not only one course of action. Borrowers do not have to be forced into a corner; they should be able to explore alternatives. In addition to that, this service may be achieved free of charge through professional counselors certified by the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Unlike attorneys, counselors do not charge by the hour and borrowers are able to fully discuss their situation and explore their options.

Even if the borrower does decide to hire an attorney, speaking to a counselor is not a waste of time because he may be able to help find a suitable attorney or ease the process. If borrowers have insufficient funds to seek help, there are always legal aid offices they an approach.

It is important to get professional help when you suspect that the lender is illegally or unjustly gaining advantage. These could be grounds to complete dismissal of the case, easily giving you space to breathe. However, if no proper legal action is taken, there may be irreversible consequences.

• Stalling or dual tracking.

Although most lenders would still prefer to amicably settle the mortgage, borrowers might encounter some who purposefully stall attempts to explore other payment options in order to fulfill the obligation. On the other hand, dual tracking is an illegal course of action wherein the lender simultaneously pursues foreclosure action and load modification requests.

• Predatory Lending.

If borrowers realize belatedly that they have entered into mortgage agreement that is beyond their capacity to fulfill, they should hire an attorney to look into this further.

• Procedural mistake.

In Long Island, foreclosure attorneys pay close attention to the lenders’ ability to comply to due process. If they file motions without proper notices, this is reason for borrowers to pursue a dismissal of the case.

• Error in origination or servicing.

There are times when loan services make errors in servicing accounts. Such circumstances include the charging of unreasonable fees, incorrect application of funds and failure to properly credit payments.

Time and money are of the essence in any legal proceeding. Hence, it is important that borrowers take enough time and effort to discern which attorney will be able to address their needs and goals best.

Choose an attorney who exhibits competency and mastery of foreclosure laws. Aside from his knowledge, his character is also important. After all, borrowers need someone who can help navigate their way through this maze. Your attorney must be goal-oriented, with a course of action set in mind and clearly explained to the defaulting borrower. He must also be thorough and objective in his review of all the pertinent documents and situation of the borrower. Last but not the least, he must have the borrower’s best interests at heart.

A telltale sign of an attorney’s capability is the number of cases he is handling. Can he give proper attention to each of his cases? Or does he merely have a few cases, making him lack the necessary experience needed?

Knowing when one needs an attorney and which one to hire will save borrowers money, time and effort when faced with foreclosure complaints. It is okay to feel at a loss, but help from Long Island foreclosure attorneys is always available for borrowers to enforce their right on their property.

General Information on Custom Military Coins

Military | Posted by Roberta Hughes
Jan 27 2015

Custom military coins signify unbreakable unity and strong brotherhood in the United Stated Armed Forces. They are known as commander’s coins, unit coins, challenge coins or medallions. Service men will recognize any of the mentioned titles. Learn more on the history, availability, options and advantages of these coins.

Custom military coinsInitially, they were given by a rich lieutenant before the war (World War II). Nowadays, they are given after the war or for accomplishing any significant and praiseworthy task. They are customized and imprinted or engraved with the organization’s logo or insignia and given to soldiers as a means of saying that they the pride of the unit. They have not only taken their place as proof of membership but also recognition and numismatic items. Recent statistical data shows that they are currently the top collectibles for the US military.

The original name of these coins were challenge coins, simply because of a military tradition of challenging members to bring out their coins.

During that time, custom military coins were completely round and covered with bronze. There were no bored holes or painted colors.

With the passing of years, technology gave way to advancement in custom coin production. This made the coins more familiar to the public, especially in Western parts of the world. Along with online shops, auctions and customizing services kept sprouting.

Because of the aforementioned situations, custom military coin alteration became not only doable but also easy. An interested numismatist or military officer can easily click on different options and get his coins in more or less two weeks. Customer service representatives will assist interested customers in requesting design layouts and enhancements. People can have their coins without having to leave their homes. All requests will be delivered to their doorsteps.

Coins are now available in gold, silver, bronze, tin and other colors and shades. They can be as small as 1.50″ and as big as 3.00″. They can be presented in velvet boxes or pouches, PVC cases, acrylic boxes and more. They can be cut into different shapes and forms such as keychains and bottle openers.

Did you know that before, such alterations were not allowed? Included in the challenge rules are restrictions in drilling holes, cutting and coloring the coins. Rules were strict back then and those who broke the rules lost had to give their coins back to the issuing agency. Also, service members during that time should not leave their coins at home otherwise they will treat the others a round of drinks.

If today earning more than one military coin is an honor, it was a ground for turning over coins before. They were only allowed to have one coin each and having more than one means he extorted someone to have it or he stole it. He will be ‘disowned’ by his unit members.

From the military, the tradition of awarding coins spread through police officers, firefighters, government officials and even members of organizations or prestigious companies. Presidents of different countries award the most aspired coins. American President Barack Obama and former president Bill Clinton and George Bush used custom military coins for welcoming respected guests.

Custom military coins are more than just plain coins printed with logos. According to survey, soldiers prefer to receive them rather than medals, plaques are certificates. Possessing them resembles having a seal of excellence stamped on the forehead. If you want to make a service man happy, custom coins are the best options. They may not be able to buy anything with these coins but it is always good to remember that the best things are always free.

Important Facts About Enobosarm

Chemicals | Posted by Erica Hall
Jan 21 2015

Ostarine is a SARM or Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator. It is now popularly known as Enobosarm and was developed to provide remedies to muscle wasting and osteoporosis. This product does not have androgenic effects on non-skeletal muscle tissues. It means that Enobosarm cause muscle growth the same way as the roids do, but it does not result to oversize organs. You can enjoy its benefits without the side effects, so you will not have the roid gut or anything. This product provides quite exceptional results for users and it will help in increasing the lean muscle mass, bone density and strength. It is best to use Enobosarm as a stand-alone product or during your Post Cycle Therapy or PCT.

This product does not affect your natural hormones, which means both men and women can use it. Normally, men take 6 to 15 mg Enobosarm per day. Females should not take more than 8 mg of Enobosarm per day.

Enobosarm Side Effects

EnobosarmEnobosarm is non-methylated, thus it is not toxic in the liver and should have less to no effect on blood pressure. A few cases of gyno build up was reported when taking Ostarine for a longer period of time, which means more than four weeks. Because of this, experts suggest that each time you use Enobosarm you take an estrogen blocker/aromatase inhibiter also.

Where to Buy Enobosarm

The SARM is used by research and development teams searching for treatments for conditions like muscle wasting and osteoporosis. A word of caution: you should not buy enobosarm from the first retailer that you will find online. The suppliers have to be reliable, credible and licensed to sell this kind of product. for such reliable and licensed sell visit www.uniquemicals.com. Here are some tips that can help you find the best supplier of the Ostarine.

You can start by reading independent reviews for tips on finding the best supplier. These reviews are very helpful since it provides both the advantages and the disadvantages of different suppliers, enabling you to make informed decisions. They also provide you valuable details as what to expect from the supplier.

After sorting out the names of the suppliers that you find reliable, visit their websites and go to the comments and testimonials pages. These testimonials and customer comments are provided by the past and present customers. It will give you first hand information as to what each supplier is offering.

There are lots of blogs, discussion forums, and other online communities on Ostarine and the posts will provide you helpful tips on where to buy Enobosarm. Joining an online community will help you better understand the product, its benefits and side effects and potential uses, its history, the past and present studies done, and other vital information.

Recommendations from people you know who have used the product, whether in your industry or from another industry is a good source. Recommendations that you can get from people you know and trust are better as compared to other sources of information because you are certain about the truthfulness of the information provided.

Your research and development team will provide you important tips on where to buy Enobosarm. The team is composed of experts who have researched about Ostarien and who have past experience in dealing with the same.

If you are just starting into research or production involving ostarine, consider having your research and development team for training. Ostarine is unlike Prohormones or steroids and training is important in using it. If you are not sure, you can ask the supplier important things like the amount to buy and others.

If you have chosen the supplier where to buy Enobosarm, asking the supplier’s source is a good idea. You should only purchase the products from well-established manufacturers because these manufacturers have a reputation to uphold and will have the needed technologies, personnel and facilities to manufacture quality SARM.

Fast Facts About Golf Balls

Sports | Posted by Joseph Kelly
Jan 20 2015

Most attention and importance are placed on golf clubs, but most people do not realize just how much influence golf balls have on one’s performance. Adequate understanding of these dimpled balls can do a lot in improving performance and skill level.

The basic things to know about these balls include the type, the cover material, and compression. These properties help improve a golfer’s handicap and get better game results.

Types of Golf Balls

There are different types of balls to choose from. The 2-piece ball has a hard outer cover and an inner core made of solid material. These are designed specifically for durability and distance. Beginners have better game with this type. It can withstand hitting hazards and trees, which is a common occurrence among beginner golfers.

Golf ballsMultilayered balls or the 3-piece type has either a solid or liquid inner core, often a gel material. The inner core is covered with a molded rubber material and forms an outer core. The outer cover is made from softer material. The cover is designed to allow higher rates for spins. These are also considerably more expensive than the 2-piece type.

High performance or intermediate balls combine the distance property of the 2-piece type and the capability for high spins of the 3-piece type. This works best for low handicap players. However, intermediate balls have lower durability and are often expensive.

Types of Cover

The ball cover is very important. The durability determines the ball’s tendency for dents. These dents result from the ball getting hit the club. These alter the ball performance and reliability of shots during the game. Hence, a ball cover should be durable enough to withstand shots and hits on trees and other hazards.

Also covers determine the spin rates of golf balls. Softer outer covers provide higher spins. Harder covers provide less spins.

Materials used for covers also differ. Balls with Surlyn for an outer cover are the most preferred. This is a hard resin that has high resistance against cuts. This material helps create longer distance. These balls are also more affordable than others.

Balata is another material used for golf ball covers. This material is rubber-like. It is a softer cover than Surlyn. This cover material allows the ball to create more spin. Golfers also get a better feel with Balata covers. However, this material is less durable and is more expensive than Surlyn.

Elastomer is another cover material. This is a rubber material and is used for balls designed for golfers with low handicap. It combines the characteristics of Surlyn and Balata. It offers durability and more spin. However, this ball is harder to control because it is designed for high spins and power.

Compression

Compression is another important characteristic. It creates density, which influences the loft and distance. When the club hits the ball, the force flattens or compresses the ball. The compression determines how the ball handles the force of impact and flexibility to avoid breaking apart when hit. It also determines how much of the club’s energy is transferred into the ball, affecting how high and how far it flies. Lower compression results in greater distances.

Compression is available as 80, 90 or 100. The lowest compression is 80 where the ball has a soft core that results in a spring-like reaction when hit. This improves distance. A 100 compression means tighter core, which works well for golfers with high swing speeds.

These are just the basic components that one should start with when learning more about golf balls. Taking these into consideration helps in getting the right ball for optimum play.

Why Your Business Needs to Consider Lanyards?

Product | Posted by Florence Mangum
Jan 19 2015

ID lanyards are widely used by companies as a way of displaying identification cards prominently. But, most people don’t know lots of things about such accessories. If you’re among them, you should definitely read these facts about the uses of a lanyard:

Because an ID lanyard is commonly used in the workplace, it is a common misconception that this is the only place where you can use it. Actually, the lanyard can be found in other establishments and businesses like in the school, military, special events and others. You can use the lanyard to hold your ID at the office, school and in other places that require you to use a badge for identification. In fact, jewelry lanyards are also getting popular all over the world.

LanyardsThe lanyard is also used by drivers, housewives and others. Aside from being the best accessory for carrying an identification card, it is also used to carry keys and other small items. With the proper attachment, a jewelry lanyard can even hold your iPod. You can attach anything that you can keep on a ring; from your key to your pepper spray, lots of things can be carried with style using a lanyard. This is considered as a tool of convenience. And if you need to carry a small item hands-free, you need a lanyard for this purpose.

Standard lanyard and jewelry lanyards are the same in function and both are made of nylon, polyester and cotton. The difference between the two is that a jewelry lanyard will generally feature elegant or colorful beading over durable and strong wire. Its purpose does not change, but the style and design definitely do. Those who wear uniforms to work like those in the medical profession, enjoy the various options a jewelry lanyard provide them for dressing up office attire that can tend to become plain and dull after a while.

Definitely, ID lanyards are not just for carrying ID, although the term would suggest that as being its primary use. Another belief that can simply be made concerning the lanyard is that this is a thing that is worn only around the neck. The truth is that sometimes a lanyard can also be worn on the wrist. Wearing the lanyard around the wrist is usually preferred by joggers. Using a lanyard worn around the neck to hold car key may result in distraction and jostling. The joggers are not aware of the presence of their key around the wrist as it dangles only a little bit from the wrist.

It does not matter which way an individual wears an ID lanyard or other sorts of a jewelry lanyard, the outcome is the same: more ease in carrying small items. The existence of the lanyard has been around for many years now, and has made its way from the coach’s neck to the hospital halls, office buildings and trade shows.

Businesses benefit a lot from using a lanyard not just for employee-identification purposes, but also as a promotional item during a business event. As compared to buying the item per piece, you can lower down your expenses for your promotional items if you purchase it in bulk (and yes, many lanyard manufacturers do accept bulk orders).

Since you can actually lower down your expenses, you will be able to distribute more lanyards to your customers. The more items you hand out to your clients, the higher your possibilities to successfully promote your product or service. Also, since a lanyard is highly visible, you can be certain that it will capture people’s attention thus boosting your chance to promote your product to a wider audience.

The HCG Diet

Weight Loss | Posted by Brett Ramirez
Jan 06 2015

People seldom think about the nutritional value of the foods they put into their mouths. Typically, the taste of the food is all that matters. Given what the food industry has done to make treats plentiful and tempting, it’s no wonder that so many of us end up fat! It can become a vicious cycle of eating, followed by looking for ways to burn off the resulting, unsightly fat. One weight-loss solution that has caught the attention of dieters everywhere is called the HCG diet.

hcg diet dropsHCG is a hormone–human chorionic gonadotropin–that can be taken in the form of drops, sprays, tablets, or injections. This hormone is produced during pregnancy, and can be found in plentiful supply in the placenta. It’s one of the hormones used to detect pregnancies, in fact, because it can be detected at around eleven days after conception. What the hormone does is that it provides a fetus with access to a mother’s fat supplies, allowing it to draw upon her stores energy and use it for its own growth needs. Dr. Albert Simeons, a British scientist working in the 1950s, made popular the concept that this hormone could also be harnessed to facilitate weight loss in adult humans. The idea is simple: since HCG allows embryos to more efficiently burn its mother’s fats stores, the same hormone could help adults burn through their own fat stores more efficiently, too.

If you caught the reference to injections, above, don’t worry! HCG comes in tablet and liquid drop forms, too. Aside from that, people who wish to try the HCG diet must commit to following a twenty-three to forty-day protocol. As with any diet program, there are rules about what one can and cannot eat while on the diet. Along with the HCG itself, success with this diet requires that one limit the number of calories taken in. First, a dieter gets to load up on food. (A great way to start, don’t you think?) The first two days of the diet plan call for the build-up of fat stores. This is done by eating lots and lots of high-fat and high-calorie foods. After that–especially for those who have opted for the forty-day plan–the next thirty-eight days will require no more than 500 calories per day. The maintenance phase comes next, which will last for three weeks. During that time, the HCG dieter may not eat sugars or starchy foods. Also, during the entire diet, one must keep up with the recommended daily doses of the HCG itself.

The hcg diet drops are one of those diets who make weight loss almost seem easy.

Mistakes to Avoid When Hiring Long Island Real Estate Broker

Real Estate | Posted by Meri Jesson
Dec 30 2014

real estate brokersThere are lots of Long Island real estate brokers or agents you can seek help from if you wish to sell your property. When selling a home, you need the assistance of these real estate agents because one wrong move can cost your time and money. There are times when you make a huge mistake and this can greatly affect the selling process. You can break free from false beliefs by making sure that you hire a legitimate broker.

Here are some mistakes you need to avoid when selecting a real estate agent:

  • When selecting a real estate agent, be sure to set some tough standards. Just because your family member or friend is selling real estate does not mean that you will encounter problems. Keep in mind that buying real estate can really be a very tough decision. In case you wish to make a purchase of real estate property from a friend, make sure that they present their credentials. It is not only the money that is at stake when you fail to set your standards in buying real estate but your friendship or family relationship as well.

  • Do not consider good presentation as your only basis on selecting a real estate agent. A good presentation can be attractive and may even tempt you to list your house but this is not enough for you to conclude that you are entrusting your property to a qualified agent. You will find it hard to correct an impulsive decision once you are already unhappy with the service. Make an additional market research and ask more questions about your prospective real estate broker to be sure.

  • An agent may be the only one who agrees with your selling price and you often consider the said agreement as a sign that the agent is really good at selling a home. However, this can be a marketing ploy and once you fall prey to their schemes, you are more likely to lose money than gain them. This is due to the fact that you do not get your home’s actual value.

  • You may also have the tendency to choose a real estate agent based on your own judgment but asking for references is still the best way to go. When you ask for feedback from previous clients, you will have an idea of their selling experience with your prospective agents. Experience may matter but the quality of the service matters more.

When these mistakes are avoided, you can be sure that you will sell your home for a valuable price and prevent serious damage caused by hiring an unlicensed real estate broker. You can find many Long Island real estate agents that will help you to sell your property for the price you deserve.

Benefits of Having Professional Web Design – Making Moves For Your Business

SEO | Posted by Lori Adler
Dec 30 2014

No matter what type of business you want to get into, you’ll want to have a website that is a part of your marketing. Without a website that is up and running, you’re going to be far behind the curve in terms of industry standards. No niche today is without a list of websites that are working within the marketing world. If you want to stand out within the parameters of today’s industry, you have to have a site, even if it is a simple one. The simplest of sites, can help your business match up with the bare minimum requirements on-line. You want to make sure that you’re looking for a variety of solutions moving forward, and perhaps even hire a professional to build your site. Getting a professional grade solution will have several benefits, and you may not know about them at first glance. The following are just some of the benefits of having a professional web design firm help you get your name and brand out there.

Standing Out From The Rest

Every company today is going to want to set themselves apart from others in a crowded marketplace. No matter how you slice it, you want to make sure that you’re able to compete with other companies on a grand scale. Without standing out, you’re going to get left behind fast. Some people are going to argue that you can definitely stand out without having a website, but it will be for the wrong reasons. Standing out in today’s crowded digital marketplaces means that you’ll have to provide your leads, end users, and people that are interested in your niche, a place to learn more about what you do. Whether you’re setting up an ecommerce site or you’re promoting a brick and mortar store, you don’t want to miss out on the opportunity to stake a claim in your industry. You could always go with a template and free web hosting, but that’s honestly not going to get you into the right arenas online. You will find that these elements of “Free” and “cheap” hosting, alongside with template solutions are going to diminish your brands value and you could end up having the same site as others. Duplicate sites, design, and other elements can hinder your forward progress in terms of marketing, after the fact.

Getting The Right Technology In Place

SEOThere have been a lot of changes in the web design world, especially in the code that is used to put up websites. There was a time when you could use simple languages and programming code to set up a site. Today, however, you’re going to have to do a little more in terms of coding to match the past. In fact, some people make sites with strict coding, so that search engines can index, and rank the site faster. Aside from the solutions that are meant for desktops and laptops, you’ll also have to provide coding and structure that gets technology into the right place. That means mobility is a main component here, because if your site doesn’t load on a smartphone or a tablet, you’re going to end up losing out big time.

The right technology is needed to get your forward progress in any business, but it makes sure to communicate that you are on top of things. If you don’t have tech in the right arenas, you will end up getting left behind, especially by the millions upon millions of people that are using smartphones right now.

Customizing Your Brand

Branding is very important when it comes to small business. If you don’t have the right branding in place, you’re not going to get very far in terms of internet marketing. In fact, you will find that your brand and name could get diminished and overshadowed by competitors that have done this well. When you hire a good web designer, they will not just set you up with a site, they’ll focus on branding and configuring the right pieces of collateral to get you moving forward. Without custom solutions, you’re going to end up having to deal with clip art, and other elements that may not be 100% unique, and that’s something that should be taken into consideration. Without unique elements in terms of your design and implementation process, you will get left behind that’s for sure.

Bringing Success Online

The number one thing that you need to remember is simple, you will be bringing in success. Successful companies on the web bring about traffic and sales through the use of customized web design. Without a proper designer helping you create the right pieces of collateral, you are going to get left behind and could possibly face a challenging climb upwards in terms of running your business. No major company today should be without a website, unless you want to get labeled as “behind” the times. This is especially true when it comes to mobile platforms, as you will want to be found when people are searching for information about your industry while away from home. If you can reach the masses through smartphones and tablets, you will be succeeding in getting your name across to the right areas, without worry.

SEO company will help you building pages with maximum reach.

Cremation 101

Society | Posted by George Louis
Dec 24 2014

In many countries and across different religions, people practice the act of burning human bodies when death claims the said bodies physically. Today, there are many existing definitions and explanations for the practice, but to better understand it, it is important to know its origin and how it has evolved by and by.

So what is this practice anyway and where did it actually originate?

Cremation is more than just the simple act of burning a dead human body. It is actually done in a very scientific way that includes vaporization, oxidation, and of course, high-temperature burning. This whole process should be completely and thoroughly done because a dead human body needs to be broken down into basic chemical compounds (such as gases, minerals, etc.) in order to be reduced to ashes.

It is also significant to bear in mind that cremating is done, first and foremost, to dispose of a dead body into ashes quicker than the traditional burial.

CremationHowever, there are methods called “primary” and “secondary” cremation. Primary refers to the burning of dead bodies on the spot, while secondary refers to on the spot burning plus burying of the remains and the dead person’s properties on another site. These terms are oftenly used in archaeology, or the study of human history and prehistory.

The earliest cremated body ever recorded was that of the Mungo Lady in Australia roughly 20,000 years ago. Although only parts of her and not her entire body was found to had been cremated, her body that was found in Lake Mungo in Australia still holds the record for the first ever burned dead body.

Documents and academic papers also show that several other countries have been cremating dead bodies since 8000 BC. Cremating bodies was said to be the final stage in the rites of passage in China, which was also adapted by Greece, Sweden, and other parts of Europe later on.

Religions have also played an important role in the history of cremation. In religions common in Asia like Hinduism, Sikhism, and Jainism, it is an accepted and mandated practice. This is because there religions believe that the human body is a vessel which carries the soul. Thus, when death comes, the soul is detached and freed from the vessel. The dead body is also believed to be an offering to Agni, the Hindus’ god of fire.

However, other religions also oppose and actually forbid cremating bodies. Islam, for instance, has different and specific ways in disposing the human body. Burning it is not one of them. Judaism also traditionally opposed the practice, along with preserving the bodies of the dead (like mummification). However, it later on allowed it, thanks to the so-called “liberal Jews.”

Christianity and Catholicism, on the other hand, do not strictly forbid the act, but they discourage it. Both religions prefer burying the body over burning it for the simple reason of letting the body go back to ashes the “natural way.” However, as time evolves, more and more Christians and Catholics prefer to cremate dead bodies for practical reasons.

Over the years, the attitude towards the practice of burning dead bodies as an act of disposing them have changed and became more favorable. During the late 1800s, a certain Professor Brunetti presented a modern way of cremating bodies at the 1873 Vienna Exposition. He took into consideration not only the cultural and traditional aspects of the practice, but also the practical and hygienic aspects of it. It was when modern cremation, or the thing people do now, was born.

Today, cremation is practiced in over 31 countries. From the Mungo Lady in Australia, the practice has definitely evolved along with the human race.